Detoxification is the process of removing or inactivating toxic substances from the body. It is crucial for cells to maintain their ability to detoxify themselves from substances, which have the potential to cause serious damages.
Cell is the smallest functioning unit in the structure of an organism. It is enclosed by a membrane and contains a nucleus and organelles with certain functions (mitochondria, lysosomes, ribosomes).
Cell cycle is the series of events that result to cell division and cell proliferation. A process very important for development, growth, wound healing.
Chromosome is a rod-shaped compound of DNA and proteins found in a cell nucleus. The structure serves the DNA package in the nucleus and the control of DNA functions. A human body cell normally contains 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs.
DNA is a large molecule found in the nucleus of the cell. It contains the essential genetic information for the function of living organisms and has a significant role in the development of all traits that define our individuality. Its molecular structure in place has the shape of a double spiral, called double helix.
DNA testing utilizes techniques that enable scientists to define the DNA sequence or detect certain nucleotides at specific positions of the DNA.
Enzyme is a protein that controls biochemical reactions, resulting to either production or inactivation of substances in cells.
Genes represent small segments of the DNA molecule which are the structural units of heredity in all living organisms. They contain the genetic information which can be used by cells. The human genome contains approximately 30,000 genes, which are located at specific positions on chromosomes.
Genetic profile results from analysis of several genes in the DNA of an individual. It can be informative for the genetic tendencies of individuals regarding the trait under consideration.
Genotype describes the constitution of gene (the type of the gene). It refers each time to a specific gene under investigation, describing the alleles that the gene contains. It often refers to the pair of the nucleotides found at a specific position of the DNA sequence.
Genome is the total genetic material of a cell. It is the full complement of genetic information that an organism inherits from parents
Inflammation is a process by which the body activates certain types of cells to protect us from infections and substances recognized as foreign.
Molecule is the smallest part of a chemical compound which can exist independently. It consists of one or more atoms held together by chemical forces.
Mutagen is an agent which can cause a change in the genetic material of an organism.
Mutation is a change in the genetic material of an organism. Regarding human cells, mutation refers to a change in the sequence of the DNA. Mutations are responsible to a significant degree for the variability of characteristics observed in the human population. Mutations can be beneficial, harmful or even neutral, having no effect. They result to different forms of alleles in genes, and are often called polymorphisms. The effect of mutations is often affected by environmental factors.
Oxidative stress is caused in cells due to their reduced ability to fight against oxidative factors, which are substances like peroxides and free radicals. These can be either by-products of normal functions of cells or can be produced by environmental toxic substances when they enter the body. In both cases they can have toxic effects as they can damage seriously the components of cells (proteins, lipids, DNA).
Predictive genomics is the field of Medicine which identifies mutations in the DNA of an individual in order to predict the likelihood of this individual to develop certain characteristics, abilities or conditions.
Proteins are molecules made of amino acids. They are essential parts of organisms and take part in energy metabolism.
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